The Republic of Komi was established on the 22 of August 1921. The capital is Syktyvkar (population 230 000), 1,410 km from Moscow. Official languages are Russian and Komi.
The Republic of Komi is located in the European North of Russia. The most southern point of the Republic is on the 59 latitude, the most Northern point is on the 68 latitude behind the Polar Circle. The Republic is bordered by the Arkhangelsk Region, Tyumen, Perm and Kirov regions. The very southern part of the republic touches the Ural Mountains and most of the territory lies between the Pinega and Mezen rivers. Area is 416.8 thousand km2.
The population is 889 837 people (2012). The republic is multi-national; Russians (59.6%) and Komi (25.2%) prevail in the national population structure. 75.5% of the republican population inhabit cities, 24.5% are village inhabitants.
The population of cities, towns and large villages (2007)
Syktyvkar 229 200, Ukhta town 103 500, Vorkuta city 76 600, Pechora 46 900, Usinsk 44 400, Inta 36 200, Sosnogorsk 28 700
The capital, Syktyvkar, is not the largest industrial city but rather an educational and scientific center. Several prominent educational and research institutions are based there, such as the Academy of State Service, Pedagogical Institute, Syktyvkarsky State University, Komi-Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Wood Institute. Other cities, on the contrary, are built around industrial giants in oil and gas, wood processing, coal and related industries. The majority of these enterprises are located along the railway in the following cities: Inta, Vorkuta, Syktyvkar, Usinsk, Pechora, Ukhta, Ust-Tsilma and Troitsko-Pechorsk. Agriculture and woodcutting are the primary industries in other areas of the republic.
The republic covers 416.8 thousand square km (2.4% of Russia territory). Major rivers are Pechora with Usoy and Izhmoy, Vychegda with Sysoloy and Vymyu, Mezen with Vashkoy. The largest lakes are Lake and Yam-Sindorskoe. Most of the territory is located in the Komi taiga zone. Forests cover about 70% of the country, dominated by spruce, pine, cedar occur, fir, larch.
The size and length of the Continental territory of the Republic of Komi, the influence of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, the natural barrier Ural Mountains in the east create heterogeneity in climate from the south-west to north-east. Here is characteristic frequent invasion of cold Arctic, and relatively warm Atlantic air masses from temperate latitudes. Winters can be long and cold and summers relatively short and cool. A low yearly average temperature, +1C in the south and –6.3C in the north characterizes Komi.
The republic possesses a unique territorial combination (according to stock, geological conditions, variety and quality) of mineral raw materials. They include fuels, ore (metals) and nonferrous (nonmetals) minerals. Particularly protected reserved territories cover 15% of the total area of Komi. This is Europe’s largest stretch of primary forest.
The varied climate of the region has resulted in a separation of the economy. The northern part of the republic is industrial with an economy driven by mining and mineral processing. The republic’s mineral resources include coal, oil gas, bauxite, titanium ores, salt and gold. In the south, agriculture is dominant.
In the territory of the republic holds about half the oil and gas reserves a third of the European North. The raw materials base of titanium ores Komi is the largest in Russia and the near abroad. Currently, the republic became the largest and most promising source of raw materials in Russia, bauxite and manganese ore.
Agriculture has a focal character. The leading industry - livestock, meat and dairy mostly ranching, in the suburban areas - pigs and poultry. Razvodyat also horses, sheep. In the northern region - herding, hunting fishing.
In recent years, in the republic increased tourist activity. Much interest among tourists and guests of the visit is of the ethnographic museum in the open air in the village of Ust-Vym, architectural ensembles Kyltovskogo Ulyanovsk and monasteries, many archeological, cultural and historical monuments, ancient man bays on the western slopes of the Ural Mountains. Specially protected natural areas make up 15 per cent of Komi.
Transport Infrastructure in the Republic of Komi
The Republic of Komi’s road transport network mainly serves internal cargo carriage and passenger transportation. The total length of the Republic’s roads is about 13,900 km, with about 5,700 km of public roads. The most developed road network is in the southern part of the Republic.
The operational length of all of the railways in the Republic of Komi is about 3,300 km, although only about 1,700 km is for public use. The basis of the railway network of the Republic is formed by the trunk railway Kotlas Vorkuta which runs from the Arkhangelsk Oblast towards the northeastern corner of the Republic of Komi. This railway is a part of the Northern Railway system. There is a plan to develop the railways to the north to have an access to the northern seaports and the Northern Sea Route.
The total length of the navigable rivers within the Republic is about 6,100 km, with about 4,400 km of internal navigable waterways. There are two large river ports in the Republic of Komi, the Pechora Port and the Syktyvkar Port, both of which belong to the Northern River Shipping Company. There are also numerous small wharfs and berths along the banks of the navigable rivers.
The largest of the existing airports are located in Syktyvkar, Vorkuta, Ukhta, Pechora, Usinsk, Inta, Vuktyl, Izhma, Koslan and UstTsilma. In the near future, two additional airports are planned to be put into operation, "Sokolovo" in Syktyvkar, and "Sovetskiy" in Vorkuta.
The total length of the commonuse pipelines used for the transportation of hydrocarbons from their production sites to endusers in Komi and in other parts of Russia and other CIS countries in the Republic is about 4,300 km. Two major pipelines run through the territory of Komi, namely the main oil pipeline Vozyey Ukhta Yaroslavl, and the main gas pipeline "Siyaniye Severa" ("Radiance of the North"). These pipelines supply oil and gas to the central and northwest regions of the European part of the Russian Federation, as well as to Belarus and the Baltic States. The construction of the 2nd and the 3rd lines of the "Siyaniye Severa" gas pipeline, as well as its extension to Punga, and further to Medvezhye and Urengoy, has made
Komi a significant oil and gas transit region. It is also planned that the gas pipelines system Yamal Peninsula Zapad (Tsentr) will be constructed across the territory of the Republic running along the railway Kotlas Vorkuta.
Much attention is paid to the development of education in the country, Culture and the Arts. In Komi operate more than 595 schools, more than 60 institutions of primary and secondary vocational education, more than 20 institutions of higher vocational education. The most reputable universities are major Syktyvkarsky State University, Uhtinsky State Technical University, Syktyvkar Forest Institute, Vorkuta branch of the St. Petersburg Mining Institute, Komi State Pedagogical Institute. The country employs 5 theatres, more than 90 museums, 400 libraries. Annual International Festival of ballet, opera and drama, folk holidays, with the participation of leading artists of Russia and foreign artists. Main research institute republic Komi Research Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It consists of 6 institutions (geology, language, history and literature, biology, physiology, chemistry, economic and social problems of the North), the Energy and mathematics.
In Komi there are 60 musical, painting, art and choreography schools, an art school under the head of Komi Republic has been established. In the republic there are five professional theatres: Viktor Savin Academic Drama Theatre (its history started back in 1930), State Opera and Ballet Theatre, Circumpolar Drama Theatre; State Folklore Theatre and Republican Marionette Theatre. Republican Philharmonic Hall provides many sided concert activities; Asya Kya (Dawn) State Song and Dance Group, Parma (Taiga) Art Group, Sigoudek Song and Dance Group have always been very popular with the local people.
The museum network includes both state institutions (National Museum with its 13 affiliations, National Art Gallery, Vorkuta Museum of Local Lore) and more than a hundred social museums established at the regional companies.
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